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Sector 4. The Kiribati Islands to the Marshall Islands

to 3m high and is densely covered with coconut palms about 24m high. There are two passages which give access to the lagoon at HW. One is on the E side of the atoll, and the other on the W, with gaps in the trees being the only indication. The E side is foul and is not used, but the W side, about 1 mile N of the SW point, can be used only by boats and is crossed by a bridge.

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There are several villages on the island, the main one being

Rawanawi on the W side, about 0.8 mile S of the N extremity. A white church here is conspicuous, with a flagstaff standing about 0.3 mile S of it. The shore reef at the N end of the island extends NW for about 0.5 mile and always breaks.

Tides—Currents.—Along the W side of the island the flood current sets N and the ebb sets S.

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Anchorage.—The principal anchorage is off the village of

Rawanawi, in 18m, with the church steeple bearing 119° and the N end of the island bearing 051°. During the N swells, from November to March, the anchorages are not tenable.

4.42 Butaritari Atoll (Makin Atoll) (3°05'N., 172°50'E.)

(World Port Index No. 56440) lies about 64 miles N of Abai- ang Atoll. The major facilities are situated on Butaritari Island, at the SW part of the lagoon. There are two trading stations at Butaritari Island; at the SW station are the remains of On Chongs Wharf and about 0.5 mile NE is Kings Wharf. About 0.4 mile NE of Kings Wharf are the ruins of a church, 0.1 mile N of which is a short, stone pier, and about 0.6 mile NE of the latter are the remains of a government pier. All supplies are brought ashore by barge. There are beaches used by landing craft.

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Winds—Weather.—As the atoll lies between the NE and

SE trades, the winds are more variable than in the S groups of islands. Generally, the wind is from the ENE, force 4. Occa- sionally, strong NE winds of force 5 to 6 are experienced. They are usually accompanied by short, fierce squalls, with rain. Calms and sultry conditions occur in June or July. Occasion- ally, thunderstorms may occur at any time of the year. The westerlies are, as in the rest of the group, gales up to force 7 lasting from 3 to 7 days.

Tides—Currents.—The mean tidal range is 1.3m, while the spring rise is 1.8m.

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The Wquatorial Current usually sets to the W and WSW in

force, but occasionally, a countercurrent to the E is exper- ienced. However, this is not a seasonal change and cannot be predicted. The rate in both cases is normally 20 to 40 miles per day. Westerly gales produce a surface drift to the E which usually lasts for 1 to 2 days after the blow has passed.

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At Butaritari Atoll, observations indicate a general set of

315°, with a drift of 1.8 knots. The current divides at Tabukin- tetau, the E end of Butaritari Island, setting W along the contours of the reef with a velocity of 2 knots and NNE along the E large island. When the current setting W along the S side of Butaritari again joins the general set, it produces tide rips S of Ukiangang Point, the S point of Butaritari Island.

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East of Butaritari Atoll, the set is N, with a drift of 2 knots.

West of Butaritari the currents are quite unpredictable. Tide rips are pronounced. The tides setting in and out of the passes through the W reef apparently cause the irregularity of the currents in this vicinity. About 20 miles W of Butaritari the current is back to a normal set of 315°, with a drift of 1.8 knots.

Pub. 126

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Strong currents are experienced in South Channel (3°03'N.,

172°45'E.) on springs, and moderate current on neaps. The current sets roughly with the channel, but crosscurrents may be expected, particularly at ebb tide, when the set is across the channel to W and NW.

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Depths—Limitations.—The only danger to navigation re-

ported in the vicinity of Butaritari Atoll is the fringing reef. A submerged reef, with depths of 2.8 to over 30m, extends nearly 0.5 mile W from Flink Point, the NW point of Butaritari Island. Reefs also extend about 1.3 miles N from Bikati Island, the NW island of the atoll. There is also some danger along the N barrier reef, as the reef edge breakers do not always show up well.

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Aspect.—The SE side of the atoll is almost continuous, with

a break 0.3 mile wide near the village Tabukintetau (3°03'N., 172°54'E.). There is a depth of 1.2m at HW in the opening. The N side of the atoll is composed almost entirely of a reef which dries for most of its length. There is a boat passage through it, which can be used only between half tide and HW. The W side of the atoll lying on the main reef is broken by three ship passages and several boat passages.

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Anchorage.—A sunken reef W of Flink Point, located about

2.8 miles NW of Ukiangang Point, provides good anchorage, in depths of 4 to 21m, coral and sand. Approach this anchorage with the N end of Flink Point bearing 104°. The anchorage is untenable in W winds, which build up a heavy ground swell. The lagoon of Butaritari Atoll is a large area with general

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depths, except for scattered shoals, of 18.3 to 36.6m. The SW part of the atoll is the main anchorage.

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Directions.—The barrier reef on the W side of Butaritari

Atoll is crossed by three ship channels, called North Channel, Central Channel, and South Channel. Vessels should use South Channel only.

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South Channel is entered between the N end of the reef ex-

tending about 1.3 miles N from Flink Point, and Ramanaba, a detached drying coral reef about 0.4 mile farther North. The channel trends for about 2 miles in a general NE direction to the main anchorage area off Butaritari Island. Before entering the lagoon, vessels are advised to contact the Marine Super- intendent at Tarawa and obtain the latest information on navi- gational aids in the area.

Caution.—Undetected coral heads may exist outside of the wire-dragged areas.

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The boat passage S of Oteariki (3°10'N., 172°42'E.) and the

passage N of Kotabu Island (3°05'N., 172°45'E.) have been mined and may still be dangerous.

4.43 Little Makin (3°16'N., 172°58'E.) is the N island of

the Gilbert group. This island and the two islands S of it, Kuup (Kiebu) (3°14'N., 172°57'E.) and Onne, lie on a reef which is separated from Butaritari Island by a passage about 1.3 miles wide. The W part of Little Makin forms a bight, the head of which is a village, and a government station and flagstaff. Tides—Currents.—The currents through the passage and in the bight on the W side of the island are strong and irregular. Anchorage.—Anchorage is not safe at Little Makin at any

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time.

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Banaba (Ocean Island) (0°53'S., 169°32'E.) lies about 302

miles, bearing 219° from Butaritari Atoll (Makin Atoll). The island is surrounded by a fringing reef, which dries and extends Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200  |  Page 201  |  Page 202  |  Page 203  |  Page 204  |  Page 205  |  Page 206  |  Page 207  |  Page 208  |  Page 209  |  Page 210  |  Page 211  |  Page 212  |  Page 213  |  Page 214  |  Page 215  |  Page 216  |  Page 217  |  Page 218  |  Page 219  |  Page 220  |  Page 221  |  Page 222  |  Page 223  |  Page 224  |  Page 225  |  Page 226  |  Page 227  |  Page 228  |  Page 229  |  Page 230  |  Page 231  |  Page 232  |  Page 233  |  Page 234  |  Page 235  |  Page 236  |  Page 237  |  Page 238  |  Page 239  |  Page 240  |  Page 241  |  Page 242  |  Page 243  |  Page 244  |  Page 245  |  Page 246  |  Page 247  |  Page 248  |  Page 249  |  Page 250  |  Page 251  |  Page 252  |  Page 253  |  Page 254  |  Page 255  |  Page 256  |  Page 257  |  Page 258  |  Page 259  |  Page 260  |  Page 261  |  Page 262  |  Page 263  |  Page 264  |  Page 265  |  Page 266  |  Page 267  |  Page 268  |  Page 269  |  Page 270  |  Page 271  |  Page 272  |  Page 273  |  Page 274  |  Page 275  |  Page 276  |  Page 277  |  Page 278  |  Page 279  |  Page 280  |  Page 281  |  Page 282  |  Page 283  |  Page 284  |  Page 285  |  Page 286  |  Page 287  |  Page 288  |  Page 289  |  Page 290  |  Page 291  |  Page 292  |  Page 293  |  Page 294  |  Page 295  |  Page 296  |  Page 297  |  Page 298  |  Page 299  |  Page 300  |  Page 301  |  Page 302  |  Page 303  |  Page 304  |  Page 305  |  Page 306  |  Page 307  |  Page 308  |  Page 309  |  Page 310
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