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MARKETING OF FOOD

cayenne for India’s tandoor, and buttermilk for catfish in the American South. Even Coca-Cola is a common mari- nade base for some barbeque sauces.

Aromatics. Aromatics add a distinctive character, with spicy, hot, sour, or sweet flavors. Chopped ginger will dominate in an Asian-influenced teriyaki marinade, along with lemongrass and soy sauce. Chinese-style marinades use ginger, green onion, and garlic. A mirepoix (finely minced onions, carrots, celery, and leeks in red wine vine- gar) flavors French-style marinades. Herbs may be fresh or dried, such as parsley, bay leaf, oregano, allspice, and peppercorns; juniper berries are typical ingredients for game marinades. Strongly flavored condiments such as Tabasco, Dijon mustard, fish sauces, or Worcestershire sauces add intense bursts of flavor to the marinade. Chilies are the foundation for many Latin marinades, in- cluding ground chili powder, or the smoky ancho adobo chile. Latin marinades also feature large proportions of garlic, cumin, and lime juice.

Fats. The fats in a marinade seal in flavor and help to keep foods moist during grilling. Olive oil or oils with mono- and diglycerides penetrate deeper and faster. As with other recipes, the oils provide a clue to the regional and ethnic profile for the recipe. Olive oil is preferred in the Mediterranean and in the western United States. Heavy fruity olive oils are best. Flavored nut oils such as hazelnut or sesame oil provide a balance to the acids and aromatics.

Yogurt, which has an acid component, also provides fat; it is one of the simplest marinades to create and use. More complex marinades will consider the balance be- tween the right acid, aromatic, and fat. A heavy fruity olive oil will not balance light rice vinegar. Nor should the cook use strongly flavored oil such as sesame oil in large quantities. Sesame oil, like balsamic vinegar, is used lightly.

Since marinated foods are grilled over heat, the com- bination of fat and acid is needed when grilling to pre- vent the food from burning off the marinade combination before the food is properly cooked. During grilling, a chef will often use a basting brush to continue to coat the grilled food with reserved marinade as it cooks. Even the brush can be part of the art of marinade; rosemary sprigs can become a basting brush while adding additional fla- vor. As the marinades cook on the surface of the meats, carmelization and a slight glazing of flavors is produced on the surface as well.

Consistency of Marinade

Marinades may be quite liquid, as in the classic red wine, olive oil, and rosemary-garlic marinade. They may also be thick and viscous, as in spiced cumin yogurt. Drier pastes are also marinades, and somewhat easier to spread over large pieces of meat. Jamaican jerk seasoning is thick, textured, and often features the intense heat of a scotch bonnet pepper. Blended with allspice, cinnamon, nutmeg,

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brown sugar, and vinegar, jerk is a memorable marinade now used by gourmets. Chimichurri is a famous thick sauce-paste from Argentina, using cayenne, parsley, sherry vinegar, and lemon. Indonesian sambals grill strips of meat covered in a thick peanut and chili marinade. North Africans are familiar with Berber spice paste, with top notes of cumin, cinnamon, lemon, and olive oil.

Dry rubs are another marinade version. Rubs are a combination of spices, sugars, and salts spread onto the meat. The meat then basted with oil before grilling.

As long as the three components of marinades are kept in mind, many marinades are possible. A simple mar- inated chicken breast can transport the diner’s palate to desert India with the use of tandoor marinade; to sultry Jamaica with Caribbean jerk; to sunny and sophisticated Provence, with garlic and rosemary; or to a down-home Texas barbecue, with chilies. Marinades can enhance the simplest ingredients, elevating them to a novel dining ex- perience.

See also Barbecue; Caramelization; Caribbean; France; Fruit: Citrus Fruit; Grilling; Herbs and Spices; India; Italy; Meat; Mexico; Middle East; Oil; Proteins and Amino Acids; Sauces; South America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barnard, Melanie. Marinades: The Secret of Great Grilling. New

York: HarperCollins, 1997.

Corriher, Shirley O. Cookwise: The Hows and Whys of Successful

Cooking. New York: Morrow, 1997.

France, Christine, ed. The Complete Book of Sauces: Salsas, Dips, Relishes, Marinades, and Dressings. New York: Lorenz Books,

2000.

Raichlen, Steven. “The Magic of Marinades.” Los Angeles Times, 12 July 2000.

Terrie Wright Chrones

MARKETING OF FOOD. In order to understand how food is marketed in grocery stores or in restaurants or other food outlets, it is important to understand how consumers make choices among food options. It is gen- erally believed that, although consumers sometimes have strong, stable preferences for some foods—for example, one may have a clear, unambiguous preference for sar- dines over and above any other food—more often than not, consumers’ preferences are constructed on the spot and are contingent on a variety of factors, such as the so- cial context, the other choices available, or the decision- maker’s consumption goals. Therefore consumers do not always choose the same brands, or the same products, each time they go to the store. In this kind of decision context, marketing stimuli can be very effective at per- suading consumers to buy one brand over another. In par- ticular, the packaging and the branding of foods can be influential in how consumers choose among food items.

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