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MAIZE: NATURAL HISTORY

under the condition of fasting. Orthodox Christians kept fasts on these days to prevent unexpected misfortunes such as drought, bad harvests, infestations, and diseases.

The apocryphal Twelve Fridays were widespread in Russia in the guise of legends, spiritual verses, and tales dating from the eleventh century. Wandering (usually blind) minstrels sang the verses and advised followers to respect Fridays by “saint fasting and praying, faith and love, gentleness and humility.” The verses warned that anybody who committed a breach of Fridays would be punished for generations to come.

In Russia the texts about the Twelve Fridays (as the texts “Dream of Our Lady”) were also used for magical purposes and were worn on the body and used as amulets. However, such texts were not just magical; they were manifestations of piety in many provinces where they were distributed in the form of manuscript copies, apoc- ryphas, and spiritual songs.

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the texts of the Twelve Fridays could be found in many Russian provinces. They were dedicated to the main feasts of the Church calendar, and people fasted on Fridays before these holidays. Every Friday had a special grace and promised special preferences. The Twelve Fridays man- uscript is still popular. People still believe that keeping fasts on these Fridays protects them against diseases and disasters.

See also Feasts, Festivals, and Fasts; Folklore, Food in; Re- ligion and Food; Russia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Afanasjev, Alexander N. Poeticheskiye vozzreniya slavjan na pri-

rodu [Poetical views of Slavs on nature]. 3 vols. Moscow, 1865–1869.

Afanasjev, Alexander N. Narodnye russkie skazkee [Russian folk tales]. 3 vols., edited by E. V. Pomerantseva and K. V. Chistov. Moscow: Nauka, 1984–1985.

Andrews, A. C. “The Bean and Indo-European Totemism.” American Anthropologist 51 (1949): 274–292.

Anikin, V. P. Russkaya narodnaya skazka [Russian folk tales]. Moscow: Prosveshcheniye, 1978.

Domotor, Tekla. Hungarian Folk Beliefs. Budapest: Athenaeum Printing House, 1982.

Frazer, J. G. The Golden Bough. A Study in Magic and Religion.

London: 1925.

Gerber, A. Great Russian Animal Tales. Baltimore, Md.: 1891.

Ivanitsky, Nickolaj A. “Materials on Ethnography of Vologda

Province.” News of the Society of Amateurs of Natural His- tory, Archeology, Ethnography LXIX (1980).

Kalinsky, J. A. “Tserkovno-Narodny mesjatseslov na Rusi [A church-folk monthly calendar in Russia].” Notes of the Im-

perial Russian Geographical Society, Ethnographical Depart-

ment 7 (1877).

Lemann, A. Illustrirovannaya istorija sueverij i volshebstva ot drevnosti do nashih dney [Illustrated history of superstitions

and sorcery from ancient times to the present]. Moscow, 1900; Kiev, 1991.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FOOD AND CULTURE

MAGNESIUM. See Minerals. MAIZE.

This entry includes two subentries:

The Natural History of Maize Maize as a Food

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAIZE

Maize, also referred to as corn or Indian corn in the United States and Great Britain, respectively, is a cereal plant of the Gramineae family of grasses that today con- stitutes the most widely distributed food plant in the world. Accordingly, maize—from the Arawak mahiz—is grown in diverse regions and climates, from 58 degrees north latitude in Canada and Russia to 40 degrees south latitude in South America. Maize cultivation and pro- cessing are driven by the production of food and live- stock feed, fermentation, and raw materials for industry.

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Maksimov, S. V. Nechistaya, Nevedomaya i Krestnaya sila [Evil spirit, mysterious and christened forces]. Saint Petersburg:

1994.

Malinovsky, Boris. Magic, Science, and Religion and Other Essays.

Boston, 1948.

Pomerantseva, Erna V. Myfologicheskye Personazhy v russkom folk-

lore [Mythological personages in Russian folklore]. Mos- cow, 1975.

Rowlett, Ralph M., and Joyce Mori. “The Fava Bean in English Folklore.” In Ethnologia Europaea. vol. 4, pp. 98–102. Arn- hem, 1971.

Ryan, W. F. The Bathhouse: A Historical Survey of Magic and Div-

ination in Russia. London: Sutton Publishing, 1999.

Rybakov, Boris A. Yazychestvo drevnyh Slavjan [Paganism of the ancient Slavs]. Moscow: Science, 1987.

Thompson, Stith, trans. The Types of the Folktales. A Classifica- tion and Bibliography/Antti Aarne’s Verzeichnis der Märchen-

typen. 2d rev. Helsinki, 1964.

Tokarev, Sergej A. Religioznye vozrenija vostochnyh Slavjan [Re-

ligious beliefs of the East Slavs in the 19th and early 20th centuries]. Moscow: Nauka, 1957.

Tokarev, Sergej A. “Suchshnost i proishozhdeniye magii” [The nature and origin of magic]. In The Studies and Materials

on Religious Beliefs in Primitive Society. The Works of the In- stitute of Ethnography. Moscow: Nauka, 1959.

Tokarev, Sergej A., ed. Mify Narodov Mira [Myths of the peo- ples of the world]. Vols. I–II. Moscow: Sovetskaya Ency- clopedia, 1987–1988.

Veselovsky, A. “Opyty po istotii razvitija Christianskoj legendy. IV. skazanie o 12 pjatnitsah. [The essays on the history of the evolution of the Christian legend, part IV, A story

about 12 Fridays].” Magazine of the Ministry of Folk Popu-

lation Part 185, department X, 1876.

Zelenin, Dmitry K. Russische (ostslavische) Volkskunde. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1927.

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