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INDIA, SOUTHERN

True baking within a seal of wheat dough, called

kanika in Kannada, is used to make the bhojanadhika roti, in which mandige broken up into small pieces is mixed with milk, cream, coconut milk, mango juice, and sugar, and then pressed into a ball. This is placed within a cov- ering of wheat dough and baked under seal on a hot tile with frequent turning of the vessel. When done, the up- per crust is sliced off, and ghee and sugar are poured on the roti before it is consumed.

Wheat dough made with sweetened milk or even cream, rolled out into circles and then deep-fried, yields yeriappa and babara. Balls of dough made with wheat flour, curds, and sweetened cream are deep-fried to produce pavuda. A less viscous wheat batter prepared with sweet- ened milk is forced through a hole made at the base of a coconut shell cup (the usual extrusion device) directly into hot ghee for ropelike chilumuri.

Some preparations have been frequently mentioned throughout the centuries. Melogara is a dish of pulses and greens, with coconut gratings, but many variations are prevalent. To make it, mung dal (split green gram), avarai (flat beans), urad dal (split black gram), fresh chana (split chickpeas), or tuvar dal (split red gram) are first cooked with sesame seeds, then cooked again with greens, drum- sticks, grapefruit, salt, and coconut gratings, and finally mixed with ghee and tempered with asafetida (gum resin) and thick milk. Even wheat dough pieces rolled into thin strands and fried may be added to melogara. Vegetables used for melogara are pretreated. Certain leaves are first washed in lime water before cooking, other greens are washed in turmeric water, and yet others with common salt or alkaline ashes. The surana root is first boiled with betel leaves, or soaked in rice water and then cooked with tamarind leaves. A melogara of dal and beans may be sweet, sour, or spicy.

There are many kinds of relish in this cuisine. Bal-

aka is now made by soaking large chilies in salt water, drying them, and then frying the chilies in oil when needed as a crisp and spicy accompaniment to food. His- torically, some twenty kinds of balaka have been prepared using various vegetables and their peels. Deep-fried items eaten as crisp and crunchy accompaniments to a meal in- clude chakkali (called murukku in Tamil Nadu), a circu- lar mass of continually widening rings extruded from a thick rice-urad (split black gram) batter, and numerous sandige, irregular lumps of spiced rice-urad batter, sesame powder, onion, or even vegetable skins like those of the ashgourd, sun-dried first, and then deep-fried until crisp in very hot oil. Curd-based relishes with greens and raw vegetables are called by various names, such as pacchadi, kacchadi, krasara kacchadi (this contains milk with curds), palidya (one variety is called kajja), thambuli (with greens and coconut gratings), and raita (a commonly used condi- ment today). Kosamris are uncooked relishes made from chana or mungbean sprouts (green gram), which are soaked in water until they soften and swell, and then gar- nished with salt, mustard seeds, and fresh coriander.

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In the cuisine of Karnataka, there has been a vast va- riety of sweet items, and they have altered little over a millennium. Sweet boiled rice, rice payasam (rice cooked in milk and then sweetened), rice-derived vermicelli payasam (vermicelli pasta cooked in milk and sweetened), mixed rice-wheat payasam (a mixture of rice and wheat cooked in milk and sweetened), rice kadabu with a sweet filling, and deep-fried delicacies of rice flour and jaggery (now called athirasa) are all based on rice. Wheat, espe- cially in the form of semolina, is suitable for the prepa- ration of sweets; from it, kesari bhath (sweetened rice flavored with saffron), ghrtapura (a fried ball), payasam (kajjaya), and ladduge are made. Wheat vermicelli is ex- truded to a fine consistency from hard wheat dough (it is then known as pheni) and usually eaten with sugared milk. Sweet wheat rotis stuffed with a mash of boiled chana, jaggery (brown palm sap sugar), and coconut con- stitute purige, hurige, or the later holige; a thinner drier form is obattu, and there is also the rolled-up cylindrical form called surali holige. Rolled-out pieces of dough are fried in various forms and then dusted with castor sugar to make phenis and chirotti; madhunala is a small tube of dough (of wheat, rice, and chana with added mashed ba- nana) filled with sugar, sealed at both ends, and then deep-fried. Karaji kayi is a half-moon puff with a sweet stuffing; if only sugar constitutes the stuffing, the result is sakkare burunde. Pulse flours of chana and black gram are also used to make sweetmeats. Boondi grains made from them are sweetened with sugar syrup and shaped

into ladduge, pinda, moti chur, and manohara unde. Jilabi,

tasty as nectar, are made of chana flour. Milk is the ma- jor ingredient for sweet payasa, as well as hal unde (balls of sweetened milk solids) and halaugu. Shikharini consists of curd solids lightly spiced and sweetened.

A typical breakfast in the region includes idli (made by fermenting a mixture of ground rice and split black gram) and vada (made from split black gram), accompa- nied by sambar (a spicy lentil preparation) and a coconut chutney, lemon rice, upitu (a savory dish made from semolina), or kesari bhath (a sweet made from semolina and flavored with saffron).

Vermicelli upma (a savory dish made with vermicelli pasta) is used as a snack in-between meals. The main meals are usually rice-based. Rice is eaten with clarified butter. This is followed by rice with rasam (a thin lentil soup), rice with sambar, and rice with curds for the final course. Usually, two vegetables called palyas accompany the meal. These are dry-cooked vegetables with green chilies, cumin, and grated coconut. A salad called kosamri is also eaten with the meal.

The Kodavas, Mangaloreans, and Udipis are distinct communities within the state; each has its own specialities.

Perched on the highlands of southern Karnataka in the Kodagu district are a warlike and distinctive people with a unique cuisine. Rice is eaten boiled or as a dis- tinctive ghee-coated product (nai kulu), or as a pulao with

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