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HAMBURGER

bread, no evidence suggests that the sausage was served as a sandwich.

FIRST LOCATED HAMBURG(ER) RECIPE?

To make Hamburgh Sausages

Take a pound of Beef, mince it very small, with half a Pound of the best Suet; then mix three Quarters of a Pound of Suet cut in large Pieces; then season it with Pepper, Cloves, Nutmeg, a great Quantity of Gar- lic cut small, some white Wine Vinegar, some Bay Salt, a Glass of red Wine, and one of Rum; mix all these very well together, then take the largest Gut you can find, stuff it very tight; then hang it up a Chimney, and smoke it with Saw-dust for a Week or ten Days; hang them in the Air, till they are dry, and they will keep a Year. They are very good boiled in Peas Porridge, and roasted with toasted Bread under it, or in an Amlet.

SOURCE: Hannah Glasse. Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy.

6th ed. London, 1758, p. 370.

Hannah Glasse’s cookbook was also among the most common in Colonial America, although it was not pub- lished in the United States until 1805. This American edition did contain the “Hamburgh Sausage” recipe with slight revisions.

mixture could be added parts of other animals, plants, spices, flavorings, and adulterations. The resulting prod- uct can be easily shaped into different forms and prepared in a variety of ways—raw in steak tartare, molded into flat cakes or croquets, baked in a loaf, boiled and served in soups, barbecued or roasted and served on a bun, fried into meat balls, or stuffed into sausages with spices and herbs for later consumption.

Origin of Hamburger

The invention of the twentieth-century hamburger sand- wich is the result of long developmental processes. Be- ginning in the fifteenth century, minced beef was a valued delicacy throughout Europe. In northern Germany, lightly fried chopped meat was called Frikadelle. Similar words are found in other European languages, and the root may be “farce,” deriving from Latin farcere (to stuff). In English the term “forcemeat” was defined by Randle Holme in “The Academy of Armory” (Chester, 1688) as “meat with a stuffing of herbs, or other things made to that purpose.”

Hashed beef was made into sausage in several dif- ferent regions of Europe. In places such as Bologna, Rus- sia, and Hamburg, beef was often combined with other meats and other ingredients. The German city of Ham- burg was known for its beef sausage, which migrated to England by the mid-eighteenth century. One recipe, ti- tled “Hamburgh Sausage,” appeared in Hannah Glasse’s

1758 The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. It consisted

of chopped beef, suet, and spices. Although the author recommended that this sausage be served with toasted

170

The frequently cited “Hamburg Steak” on the Del- monico’s restaurant menu dated 1834 was neither served as a sandwich nor composed of ground beef. With the popularization of the meat grinder in America about 1850, ground beef became a possibility. Recipes for it ap- peared in cookbooks from other countries, such as in

Henriette Davidis’s Praktisches Kochbuch für die Deutschen

in Amerika. In American cookbooks, these recipes were frequently called “Beefsteak à la Hamburg.” This recipe was so associated with the United States that the 1899

edition of Blüher’s Rechtschreibung der Speisen und Ge-

tränke reported without explanation that chopped beef- steak was called “Hamburg steak” in America. Ground beef was also called “Salisbury steak,” which was named in honor of the American physician James H. Salisbury

(1823–1905), who wrote The Relation of Alimentation and

Disease (New York, 1888). Salisbury believed that scraped lean beef, flattened into cakes and broiled, was among the best foods for those who were ailing. As scraping beef was a difficult task, common recipes for it just recom- mended grinding the beef, a process not recommended by Salisbury. Scraped or ground, Salisbury steak could be served with toast, but it was not served as a sandwich.

The Sandwich

The sandwich—a filling between two slices of bread that can be consumed by hand—is said to have been popu- larized by the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792). This mode of eating became so popular in England that it was mentioned in several diaries and in Samuel Johnson’s

1755 Dictionary of the English Language. Shortly there-

after, cooks and hosts began experimenting with various fillings other than sliced beef.

Sandwiches migrated to the United States before the Civil War. In the mid-nineteenth century, sandwiches consisted of a filling composed of lean slices of cold meat between two thin pieces of bread flavored with mustard and ketchup. They were served in bars and saloons, where patrons could easily consume them without the need of knives, forks, or plates. During the late nineteenth cen- tury, interest in the sandwich rapidly expanded to include boned fish, sardines, cheese, boiled eggs, stewed fruit, chopped nuts, mushrooms, chicken, watercress, sardines, and jelly and jam. Many salads, such as chicken and lob- ster, were converted into sandwiches. By 1900, hundreds of different fillings were consumed in sandwiches.

Hamburger Sandwiches

Several legends have grown up concerning who first served hamburger sandwiches in America. A hamburger

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