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FOOD SECURITY

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Preliminary FoodNet Data on the Incidence of Foodborne Illnesses— Selected Sites, United States, 2001.” Morbidity and Mor- tality Weekly Report. Vol. 51, 15 (19 April 2002): 325–329. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwr html/mm5115a3.htm

Cliver, Dean O. Eating Safely: Avoiding Foodborne Illness. 2d ed.

New York: American Council on Science and Health, 1999. Available at http://www.acsh.org/publications/book lets/eatsaf.html.

Collins, J. E. “Impact of Changing Consumer Lifestyles on the Emergence/Reemergence of Foodborne Pathogens.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 3, 4 (1997): 471–479.

Doyle, Michael P., et al. “Reducing Transmission of Infectious

Agents in the Home.” Dairy, Food and Environmental San-

itation 96, 1 (June 2000): 330–337.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Un-

derstanding the Codex Alimentarius. Rome: FAO/WHO,

1999. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9114e/ w9114e00.htm

Hennessy, T. W., C. W. Hedberg, et al. “A National Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis Infections from Ice Cream.” New

England Journal of Medicine 334, 20 (1996): 1281–1286.

Hutt, Peter Barton, and Peter Barton Hutt II. “A History of Government Regulation of Adulteration and Misbranding

of Food.” Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal 39 (1984): 2–73.

Jay, L. S., D. Comar, and L. D. Govenlock. “A Video Study of Australian Domestic Food-Handling Practices.” Journal of Food Protection 62, 11 (1999): 1285–1296.

Kaferstein, F. K., and M. Abdussalam. “Food Safety in the 21st

Century.” Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation 19

(1999): 760–763.

Knabel, S. J. “Foodborne Illness: Role of Home Food Handling Practices.” Food Technology 49 (1995): 119–131.

MacKenzie, W. R., N. J. Hoxie, et al. “A Massive Outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply.” New England Journal of Medicine 331, 3 (1994): 161–167.

Mead, Paul S., Laurence Slutsker, et al. “Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States.” Emerging Infectious Dis- eases. Vol. 5, 5 (1999): 607–625. Available at http://www .cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/mead.htm

Morris, J. Glenn Jr., and Morris Potter. “Emergence of New Pathogens as a Function of Changes in Host Susceptibil- ity.” Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3, 4 (October–December 1997): 435–441.

National Research Council. Ensuring Safe Food: From Production

to Consumption. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998.

Olsen, Sonja J., Linda C. MacKinon, et al. “Surveillance for Foodborne-Disease Outbreaks—United States, 1993–

1997.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 49 (17 March

2000): 1–62. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/ preview/mmwrhtml/ss4901a1.htm

Proceedings of the Fourth ASEPT International Conference, Laval, France, 1996. Edited by A. Amgar, pp. 185–195.

Rawson, Jean M., and Donna U. Vogt. Food Safety Agencies and Authorities: A Primer. Congressional Research Service Re-

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port for Congress; 98-91 ENR. Washington, D.C.: Con- gressional Research Service, 1998. Available at http://www .cnie.org/NLE/CRSreports/Agriculture/ag-40.html.

Satin, Morton. Food Alert! The Ultimate Sourcebook for Food

Safety. New York: Facts on File, 1999.

Tauxe, R. V. “Emerging Foodborne Diseases: An Evolving Pub- lic Health Challenge.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 3, 4 (1997): 425–433.

United States Food and Drug Administration. Food Safety: A Team Approach. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Health and Human Services, 24 September 1998. Available at http:// vm.cfsan.fda.gov/lrd/foodteam.html.

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counting Office, May 1996.

United States Food and Drug Administration. “The Story of the Laws behind the Labels. Part I: 1906 Food and Drugs Act.” FDA Consumer June 1981. Available at http://vm .cfsan.fda.gov/lrd/history1.html

Vetter, James L. Food Laws and Regulations. Manhattan, Kans.: American Institute of Baking, 1996.

Cynthia A. Roberts

FOOD SECURITY. Most people are familiar with the terms “national security” or “home security,” but rel- atively few are familiar with the term “food security.” These terms convey a sense of an absence of or lowered risk; a home is less likely to be burglarized, a nation’s state secrets are less likely to fall into the hands of un- friendly nations. Food security has similar connotations in relation to food. According to the 1996 World Food Summit, food security exists “when every person has physical and economic access at all times to healthy and nutritious food in sufficient quantity to cover the needs of their daily ration and food preferences, in order to live a healthy and active life.”

In its simplest form, food security means that all people have enough to eat at all times to be healthy and active, and do not have to fear that the situation will change in the future. As a concept it can be applied at many levels—global, national, household, and individual.

There are three fundamental pillars in achieving food security. The first is food availability. At the global level this is the key factor—sufficient food must be grown to ensure that everyone can be adequately fed. In the early 1970s several political missteps, combined with droughts, raised concerns about whether this could be attained. In- deed the crises of the early 1970s which resulted in high world grain prices led to an international conference in 1974 and the founding of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the World Food Council, and the FAO Committee on World Food Se- curity. Today the world is food secure from the per- spective of food availability, and global grain prices are less costly in real terms than at any time in recent decades.

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