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that the new rules will be issued, new guides and software will be published, training courses run, exams completed and the certification activity will be launched by January 2009. With regard to the remaining time and the fact that the notification cannot be started until April 2008 at the earliest presents a great challenge.

Regarding Article 10, the Chamber of Engineers and the Chamber of Architects agreed early in 2006 that a common examination board will issue the licences for the experts. This agreement has been approved by the State Office of Housing and Building. The Chamber of Engineers was prepared to start the exams in 2006, however, due to the lack of the regulation, they have been postponed although more than 1000 potential experts who were prepared to participate.

A+

The regulation covering Articles 8 and 9 is the responsibility of the Ministry of Economy and Transport. The content is still under discussion due to some formal objections, e.g. whether a Decree may include equations.

2 > Status of the implementation

Certification of buildings

Although the method of the certification became the subject of discussion, the rating system and the numeric values of the requirements have been in force since September 2006.

There are 10 categories in the Hungarian rating system. Each category is classified by a letter which is explained in words. The buildings which meet the new requirements of 2006 are in the category C, whilst A+, A and B include those which are more efficient (see the attached table). The categories below C are used for buildings of energy consumption beyond the limitations of the new requirements – mainly existing buildings.

The rating categories are based on the ratio of the actual and the prescribed reference values of the specific primary energy consumption. The figures in the table below express this ratio in %

A+ A B C

Low energy

<55 75 95

100

D 101 – 120

E 121 – 150

F

151 – 190

G 191 – 251

H 251 – 340

I 341 <

56 - 75 - 95 –

Energy efficient

Better than required

Complying with requirement

Approaching requirement

Better than average Average

Approaching average Poor

Bad

The labelling is documented in the energy certificate, which consists of several pages but the final result is shown on the eye-catching illustration on the front page. It consists of a set of coloured arrows, the length of which is proportional to the annual primary energy consumption of the average building in the given category. This illustrates the system of categories at first sight.

A specific feature of the illustration is the selection of a non-linear scale. The annual primary energy consumption of existing buildings may be 3 - 6 times higher than that of a new one. It seems to be more favourable if the width of the categories is narrower in case of good quality buildings and increases continuously with the annual energy consumption (e.g. the width of the category B is 20 kWh/m2a only, but may be as high as 60 – 80 kWh/m2a for category F). In such a system the ends of the arrows are on a hyperbolic curve. As a result, a limited number of categories is enough to cover the full scale ranging from the low energy buildings to the worst quality existing buildings. The decreasing widths towards the low energy buildings clearly demonstrates the effort required to achieve a better label. Whilst a few centimetre of added insulation on a non-insulated brick wall has a dramatic effect, the same measure makes little or no improvement in the case of a well insulated building. It is easy to achieve a 20 kWh/m2a decrease of the annual consumption if the original was 200 kWh/m2a but tremendous effort is necessary if the original was 50 kWh/m2a!

With regard to the procedure of the certification itself it should not be forgotten that in the case of newer buildings the input data are more reliable, calculations, drawings are available, whilst the input data of existing buildings, built 40 – 70 years before may frequently be estimated

EPBD Buildings Platform > P070_EN_Hungary-March 2008

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