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table). Whatever the case of the requirements on the level of the buildings the required U values must not be exceeded. At the same time it is to be emphasised that compliance with the requirements of the building elements does not guarantee compliance with the requirements of the building as a whole!

Regarding the building as a whole a specific heating load requirement and the risk of sumer overheating must be checked.

The specific heating load includes all building related components of the energy balance, namelly: - transmission heat losses (W/m³K) including thermal bridge losses, - utilised solar gains.

Specific net heating energy demand W/m3K vs surface to volume ratio.

The specific heating load range is 0,20 – 0,58. The actual value depends on the surface to volume ratio (in other terms on the form factor) of the building. This requirement must be met, irrespective of the building use.

With regard to solar gains there are several options: a) they can be ignored (in this case improved insulation must be applied) b) the gains can be taken into account with a conservative value for shaded facades

c) the gains can be taken into account with differentiated values for the different orientations if solar admission is proven using a shadow mask calculator.

Subject to the maximum U values of the building elements in the table, more solar gains can be utilized in conjunction with lower insulation levels.

The overall average U value vs surface to volume ratio.

It is important to mention that the fulfilment of the requirements for the building elements does not guarantee the fulfilment of the specific net heating need requirement – it depends on the surface to volume ratio, on the solar gains and on the ratio of the area of the different elements. On the other hand, the fulfilment of the specific heat load requirement does not guarantee that the requirements regarding the building and the services systems together will be fulfilled

At first sight the diagram may suggest that the requirement for larger and more compact buildings is very strict, however the reality is the opposite: the higher the surface to volume ratio, an increased level of thermal insulation is required. If the solar gains are ignored, the overall average U value (including windows, doors and thermal bridges) must not exceed the limit, shown in the diagram. The range of the overall average U value is 0,44 – 0,67 W/m2K. It is about 40% less than the value prescribed in the previous building regulation, issued in 1993.

With regard to the risk of summer overheating the regulation aims at limiting the expected daily average indoor-outdoor temperature difference – thus the consequences rather than the solar gains are checked. Increased solar gains may be the reason of the summer overheating. Design values of global radiation intensity per orientation are based on climatic data: shading by opposite buildings or protruding elements must be proven by shadow mask calculator. The role of the g value of glazing and movable devices is unambiguous. In case of natural ventilation the air change rate is the conventional design value, depending on the position of openable windows and on the possibility of night ventilation. The tolerated temperature difference is 3 K for heavy and 2 K for light weight building construction. The parameters refer to the design measures, influencing the risk of overheating. Certainly the consequences of the internal gains cannot be easily eliminated.

The third level of the regulation includes the building and the service

EPBD Buildings Platform > P070_EN_Hungary-March 2008

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