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of 32, who did not testify before the commission. Mr Khotso's camp name was "Porco", meaning "pig". The
background to this assault concerned a practice which many detainees found humiliating, in terms of which they were
required to heat the bathwater for the camp commanders and thereafter to throw the dirty water out. This practice was
considered unacceptable by the detainees and was taken up with ANC officials. On the day in question, a young
commander, estimated to be no more than 16 years of age, instructed Mr Khotso to fetch water for hirn. Mr Khotso
refused to do so and was struck by the young commander. It is possible that Mr Khotso hit back in anger. Thereafter, Mr
Khotso was fetched from his cell by a group of commanders, tied to a tree and savagely beaten. While in an
unconscious state he was thrown into a swamp. Two other prisoners who were then in a weakened state as a result of
being on hunger strike were told to fetch Mr Khotso from the swamp as a form of punishment. Apart from the
savageness of this assault, Mr Khotso was apparently partially crippled as a result of a previous assault by camp
guards.
One of the noteworthy features of the period of detention in Uganda, was attempts by certain ANC officials to improve
conditions Several witnesses specifically singled out the efforts of Tenjiwe Mthintso, the ANC's Chief Representative in
Uganda. She apparently displayer a genuine capacity to listen to complaints and as a result of her efforts conditions
improved. We were informed that for the first time, detainees were able to relate their complaints without the guards
being present.
As a result of their plight certain prisoners embarked on a hunger strike in Uganda. Their demands included to be tried
or released, compliance by the ANC with the Geneva Convention and classification as political offenders. Promises of a
trial temporarily ended the hunger strike. Those promises were not, however, fulfilled In January 1991 four prisoners
embarked upon another hunger strike. One of them continued for 35 days, when he was removed in an unconscious
state to a hospital in Kampala.
Dakawa was more of a resettlement village than a prison, although the inhabitants were not free to come and go as they
pleased. It seems that most of those sent to Dakawa were involved in the mutiny of 1984. Conditions in Sagawa were
poor. The inhabitants lived in tents. A small group of the Dakawa inhabitants managed to escape and make their way to
Dar es Salaam where they sought protection as refugees from the United Nations. This group ultimately made its way
back to South Africa in April 1990 after intervention by the South African Department of Foreign Affairs
K. FORCED CONFESSIONS
We heard several harrowing accounts of the use of torture to extract confessions. In the main, attempts to extract
confessions preceded internment at Quatro. The means used to extract confessions were, according to the witnesses,
brutal in the extreme. We cite but three examples.
i. One witness told us how he had been assaulted by a particular ANC security official whose name frequently
cropped up in evidence. When the detainee struck back, he was beaten by a group of security officials with their
revolvers until he became unconscious. His shoes, belts and ring were removed and he was taken to a cell in the
Revolutionary Council, a building which formed part of the ANC headquarters in Lusaka. The following day he
was interrogated and severely beaten. He was made to squat with a rod behind his knees and over his arms and
whenever he lost his balance in this awkward position, was kicked and beaten. When he could no longer maintain
this position, he was made to stand up with his hands against the wall and beaten on the waist with a baton. This
continued for approximately an hour. He was then ordered to sit on the ground with his feet up, while his feet
were continuously beaten. This treatment was designed to elicit information in connection with the alleged role
that he had played in the arrest of an ANC member in South Africa. The beatings continued the next day. That
night, he made up a story, but when given paper to write his account, forgot the details and was again beaten. He
was unable to urinate properly as a result of being kicked in the genitals. All in all, he re-wrote his confession up
to ten times until his interrogators were satisfied. When he refused to sign his confession he was again beaten
up. He finally succumbed, signed the confession, but omitted the part where he stated that the confession was
made voluntarily. This was overlooked by his interrogators.
ii. Another witness related now he was tortured at Mazimbo Prison camp in Tanzania. He stated how over a period
of approximately 14 hours he was beaten with sticks and kicked in the kidney area. He eventually made a
confession which was palpably devoid of truth in which he admitted to killing certain people who are still alive
today.
iii. Another witness told of the manner in which he was interrogated by four members of the ANC security
department in Zambia. The witness was hanged from a tree and burnt on the soles of his feet with candles and
beaten on the back with whips. A second session of torture some time later by the same team resulted in this
witness being burnt with candles, and continuously assaulted.
Most of the witnesses who appeared before the Commission from whom confessions were allegedly extracted by torture
stated that they had made the confessions simply to escape the pain. They denied that their confessions were true.
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