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szpke{ dh fsZyh p'n Bkb BZe ftu ib{D fijh fSV gJh. T[; B/ fJe ewo/ dk fizdk y'jfbnk. x[;w[;/ fij/ ewo/ ftukb/
fSZe nkT[D nkT[D eodh go fes/ wrI ftu jh c; rJh brdh. epo–B[wk EVQk ;h i' r'N/dko joh ukdo Bkb Yfenk j'fJnk ;h.
d[ekBK ftu Gfonk wkb dZ;dk ;h fe gkfe;skB ftu fJ;d/ yohddko ;kjwDh ezX T[s/ ‘BkBe gho* dh tZvh co/w ehsh s;tho Nzrh j'Jh
fezBh tZvh frDsh ftu j'Dr/. nkT[D ;w/A ;wM"sk n?e;gq?; ftu'A th ;h. gsk bZfrnk fJj wzdo BjhA ;r'A r[od[nkok ;h fijVk gfjbh
t/fynk ;h, ;akw B{z fgzvK ftu j[Ze/ d[nkb/ pi[orK dhnK YkDhnK gks;akjh Bkb ;pzfXs ;h go T[;d/ fJfsjk; pko/ B"itkB B{z e'Jh
i[VhnK j'JhnK ;B. fJbw BjhA ;h. fJ; nB'y/ r[o{xo dk fIeo fJepkb e?;o dh y'i
Àd;w/ r[o{ dk x'Vk szpke{ d/ y/s *u tVB' fJBekoh j' frnk ;[Dd/ nkXkfos g[;se ‘gkfe;skB ftu f;ZyK d/ fJfsjk;e gftso
nkJ/ nK, go gszdok s{z sK nZi szpke{ d/ r[dkw *u Jh b? tfVn?A, n;EkB* ftu fJ; soQK ehsk frnk j? fe fJE/ ;qh r[o{ BkBe d/t ih
j[D J/j Bk nkydhA r[V–r[V th eo e/ t/y bhJ/ wkVh ih.Á BZe dh 1570 JhH ftu nkgD/ fJe gq/wh d[Bh uzd d/ xo nkJ/ ;B. fJj
e{zpbh w;bdk pbd/t f;zx ozr *u ;h. u[jNk w[csh pkeo fJbke/ ftu j?.
ÀnkU ;odko ih bZ;h ghAd/ ikU.Á fJe w'eb/ jZvK–g?oK tkb/ i/ d[ekBdko B{z wzdo s/ r[od[nko/ ftu coe eoB dh b'V
d[ekBdko B/ nktkI wkoh. BjhA ;h gJh sK fJ; w[;bwkB bVe/ B{z f;ZyK d/ fJfsjk; ftu Gbk
ÀUJ/ Goktk ;kvh sK nrbh ghsh pkjo nkT[D B{z fcodh n?.Á eh fdbu;gh j' ;edh ;h <
pbd/t f;zx B/ w/o/ tZb e[BZyk t/yfdnK fejk. go d/t dod d/ g?o Àw/ok tkfbd J/jdh ;zGkb eodk J/ ih.Á w[zv/ B/ fuVh–g{zMk S[vkT[D
sK gfjbK jh d[ekB tZb w[V gJ/ ;B. d/ bfjI/ ftu fejk. T[;dk okf;ad BK dk pkg feXo/ pkjo frnk
ÀpkfpU t/y' fenk ezrBh tkbk frbk; n?, tkj `Á d/t dod dk j'fJnk ;h.
n?ANhetkdh wB fgZsb d/ frbk; T[s/ T[eohnK t/b–p{NhnK t/y e/ Às[jkv/ e'b gqek;a eoB bJh r[o{ rozE ;kfjp dh phV j? <Á w/o/ s'A
ohM frnk. Bk ukj[zfdnK th fJj w{oykBk ;[nkb g[ZfSnk frnk. ;akfJd r[od[nko/
Àb? j[D bZr/ n? frbk; B{z uko uzB.Á r'v/ fiZv/ bZ;h–Go/ frbk; ftu dh y;sk jkbs t/y e/ w/o/ nzdo'A ;[Zsk f;Zy ikr fgnk ;h.
wZyD dk g/Vk f;ZNd/ d[ekBdko tZb t/yfdnK w?B{z X[osVh nkJh. ÀBJQhA ih nkj ekgh gVQ e/ tkfbd j'ohA rkT[Ad/ n? ed/ ed/.Á w[zv/ B/
Ànkj i/ n;bh bZ;h sK, tkj ` ;[nkd nk frnk pkfpU.Á d/t dod goQ/ u"Aeh s/ eZgV/ j/m'A fJe cNh–g[okDh fpB fibdh ekgh eZY e/
B/ gq;zB–fuZs j' e/ g?;/ fdzfdnK tZvk veko wkfonk. rkje ns/ T[j ftykJh.
th uVQd/ gzikp'A nkJ/ rkje d/ fujo/ s/ oZi t/y e/ d[ekBdko th wkD ÀgVQ yK Gbk, eh fbfynk J/ J/Ajd/ ftu <Á f;cash dk xo ej/ iKd/
Bkb Go frnk go T[; B/ g?;/ Bk b?D dh e'Jh ;[bkj BjhA wkoh fit/A ;afjo d/ tk;h d/t dod dh ifrnk;k j'o GVe T[FZmh fe PkfJd
;[Dd/ ;K fe nfijk ne;o j[zdk j?. ekgh ftu r[opkDh fbyh j't/. n;hA iZN d/ g?o j/m pN/ok nkT[D tkr{z
Àwzdo t/yD uZb/ U ;odko ih <Á T[; B/ ngDZs Bkb g[ZfSnk. ;[s/^f;ZX fJe d[obZG yIkBk y'i fbnk ikgdk ;h.
ÀfJZE/ feZE/ t/ wzdo <Á r{VQ w[;bwkBh fJbke/ ftu wzdo pko/ ;[D e/ w[zv/ B/ nZyo i'V–i'V gVQBk P[o{ ehsk. ekgh ftu :;{
d/t d/ ezB yVQ/ j' rJ/. w;hj dh wfjzwk ftu fby/ ;kd–w[okd/ rhs ;B. gsk bZfrnk
Àn"j t/ bkr/ Jh.Á d[ekBdko B/ fJe y;sk fJwkos d/ X{V–Go/ okf;ad sK w;hj ;h.
dotkI/ tZb fJ;akok ehsk. BZek;ahdko p{j/ s'A sK T[j e'Jh g[okDk Àgkfe;skBh teca p'ov tkb/ ;KG–;zGkb Bh eod/ fJ; fJfsjk;e
fonk;sh xo jh brdk ;h. n;hA p{jk yVekfJnk. nzdo'A fe;/ Bk n;EkB dh <Á g[ZS e/ w?A fit/A w[zv/ dh d[ydh or S/V p?mk.
r"fbnk. n;hA th yfjV/ jh g? rJ/. tkjtk fuo fgZS'A fJe w?b/– ÀeZy BhA fdzd/ ih, e'Jh BhA f;nkDdk fgnk n;K B{z, pZ; tZfvnK
e[u?b/ eZgfVnK tkb/ B"itkB B/ p/fdbh fijh Bkb dotkIk y'jfbnk. r[od[nkfonK s'A ;'N eoh iKd/ B/.Á joy ftu f;o MNefdnK
gZrK t/y e/ e[M g[SDk w[Bkf;p Bk ;wMfdnK ;kB{z nzdo bzxk fbnk. B"itkB dk fujok swswk T[¿Zfmnk, Às[jhA eo' e[P.Á joy S/sh jh
wzdo sK fes/ th BjhA ;h fd;dk, rohp–r[op/ d/ xo tork xo ;h.
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