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The Nomes of Ancient Egypt

Southern naret-tree (naret [Hnes / Ahnas?] (Gr. Temple dating from the
20. UE khenet) (Western bank of the Nile (Empty space) Heryshef Khnum? Herakleopolis- Temple of Middle Kingdom until the
near Tell Abu Sefa?) magna, Mod.
Heryshef Roman era. Capital of the
Ihnasya el- nome.
This nome (portrayed on a standard) has been called, variously, “Southern Sycamore”, “Laurel Superior” and “Upper Laurel”37. This nome has also been called “Vorderer
Oleander-Gau” 38 (Front Oleander nome), and while it is most unlikely that the oleander tree grew in Egypt, it could have been imported. According to Wilkinson39 “There is only
rather ambiguous evidence for oleander, Nerium oleander L., having grown in ancient Egypt.” The term “sycamore” is probably in reference to the Sycomore Fig tree. The three
amphorae with the naret-tree may give some indication that some part of the tree was used for distillation of perfume, medication, or food. The tree sign is very similar to
Gardiner’s M1 with the exception of the “teardrop” on the right of the tree. However, the three jars may indicate the “superior” position of the province. It is not known what tree
could be identified with the “naret-tree”. In ancient times, the then uncultivated Faiyum belonged to this nome, although by Dynasty 4 the Faiyum region was governed
autonomously. On the “adoption” stela of Nitocris, reference is made to this nome, which is called Iuna. This province was called Herakleopolites during the Hellenic
occupation, and was so called because the chief deity was the ram-headed Horus, whom the Greeks identified with Herakles. On Roman nome coins, the distinguishing
attribute of this nome is a griffin (Akhakh) which is thought to have symbolised military valour. The capital of the nome is named in Isaiah, XXX 4, “…and his envoys reach as far
as Hanes …”

Northern naret-tree (naret Small temple in the area of
21. UE pekhet) or Osiris
Shenakhen / iris Kafr Ammar and Kafr Tarkhan
(Western bank of the Nile Khnum Khnum Semenuhor (Gr.
Os where texts relate to the cults
near Meidum?) Akanthon)
Khnum of Khnum and Osiris. Capital
of the nome

This nome has also been called “Northern Sycamore”, “Lower Laurel” and “Hinterer Oleander-Gau”40 (Hind Oleander nome). Other towns thought to have been in this nome at
various times: the southern portion of modern el-Lisht (itji tawi?), Kom Mediet Ghurab, el-Lahun, el-Gerzeh, Meidum and Tarkhan. It has been suggested that Shedyt (Medinet
el-Faiyum) was once part of this province.

37 From several websites
38 Helck [1977], p.392
39 Wilkinson [1998], p.56
40 Helck [1977], p.393
Page 39
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