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Satellite image of District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Source: Google Earth 4.2.0205.573, November 2008
have been a major driver behind resettlement and rural districts as part of urban renewal and sis confirmed the pattern of slum settlements that
projects for the city’s urban slums, particularly infrastructure projects. As such, there is a need for were identified through spatial analysis but allowed
along canals and waterways. improved housing, water and sanitation in many for further analysis of urban housing typologies
different areas of the city. and the context in which urban slums exist. As
Economically, Ho Chi Minh City has derived enor- for phase one, slums in urban areas were concen-
mous benefit from Vietnam’s shift to a market- trated along canals and waterways, while in rural
oriented economy, having received 85% of all PART 4: MAPPING STUDY areas there were individual slum houses scattered
the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) coming into throughout. In semi-urban and rural areas there
Vietnam (World Bank; 2007). However, the estab- The purpose of this section is to examine the dy- was also a high incidence of transitional boarding
lishment of new industrial and economic zones has namics and settlement patterns of urban poverty houses for urban migrants, many of which exhib-
fuelled rural-urban migration which, in turn, has housing in Ho Chi Minh City on a broad scale. Two ited signs of cramped living conditions and inad-
accelerated the growth of urban slums. phases of mapping were undertaken by HFHI-V in equate sanitation.
2008: a desktop spatial analysis study using Re-
mote Sensing (RS) imagery and aerial photography Through both the spatial and visual analysis, it was
PART 3: NEW URBAN CHALLENGES followed by a visual and qualitative analysis based concluded that the major issues affecting poverty
on field surveys. housing, water and sanitation in Ho Chi Minh City
In the context of rapid economic growth and were:
urbanization, the major challenges for provid- In the first instance, spatial analysis was used to - Durability of building construction
ing adequate housing, water and sanitation for identify slum settlements from aerial photography. - Hazardous housing locations
Ho Chi Minh City’s urban poor are related to two This showed notable trends in settlement pat- - Inadequate living space
key issues: rural-urban migration and resettle- terns in Ho Chi Minh City. In urban and semi-urban - Inadequate access to water and sanitation
ment. Between 20-30 percent of Ho Chi Minh City’s areas, slums were typically located along canals - A need for adequate transitional rental
population are estimated to be migrants or tem- and waterways or adjacent to public infrastructure. housing for migrants
porary residents (Waibel, 2007), many of whom In rural districts the pattern was more fragmented - A need for adequate housing for communi-
live in cramped transitional boarding houses, or rather than concentrated, and therefore difficult to ties that have been resettled
squatter settlements, particularly on the urban distinguish from spatial analysis alone.
fringe. Conversely, urban slums and slum settle- The study did not conclude that one particular dis-
ments in established urban areas, which tend to be Following this, field surveys were undertaken us- trict had the greatest need, but identifies several
concentrated along canals, waterways and public ing a set of defined visual parameters to identify districts in each of the urban, semi-urban and rural
infrastructure, are being resettled to semi-urban slums and squatter settlements. This visual analy- areas have been as priorities for HFHI-V’s program.
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