Marshes A marsh is like a river of grass. Unlike
swamps, trees don’t grow in marshes. Grasses, shrubs, and wildflowers do. Marsh water is shallow. Water plants
thrive in marshes. Duckweed is a good example. Its thick leaves float like a green carpet on the water. A marsh can have fresh water or
salt water. Fresh water flows in from nearby lakes and rivers. Salt water flows into marshes along coastlines. Water levels change with the tides. T at’s what happens in Camargue.
It’s a saltwater marsh. It’s also the largest delta in western Europe. A delta forms at the mouth of a river. Plants like glasswort grow in this
marsh. Wild horses graze on the marsh grasses. Other animals live here, too. Great blue herons spear fish with their beaks. Kingfisher birds dive to catch fish. Pink flamingos build nests.
This frog hides in the water under plants.
Bogs Bogs get their water from the sky. It comes in the form of rain, sleet, or snow. Yet bogs need more than water. T ey also need a plant called moss. When moss sprouts on water, it
shuts out light and air. Plants and animals living there die off . In time, the water becomes soggy soil. Sometimes, moss covers dry land. It
traps water in the soil. Over time, the moss and soil grow soggy. It becomes peat. Peat is made up of dead plants. Bogs usually form in cold areas. T e
largest bog is in Siberia. Much of the land is frozen and has few nutrients. Not many plants and animals can live in a bog.
What Lives in a Bog? A bog’s soggy soil can’t support many trees. T e wet soil can’t hold up the heavy trees. Some plants do grow in bogs, though. T e sundew plant is one of them.
It gets some nutrients from the soil. It eats insects trapped in its sticky leaves. Many small birds live in bogs. T ey
build nests on the ground. Here, they have few predators. Luckily, they can find just enough food to survive.
22 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER
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