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series of tests involved the testing of one B plate configura- tion plate in which a confluence weld was produced during casting and one A1 plate. Thus far in the present investiga- tion, confluence welds only have been produced with the B configuration, possibly as a result of thicker oxide film pro- duction on the surface of the fronts due to the longer distance the streams must travel within the plate cavity versus that of the A designs. As means of determining the effects of con- fluence welds on the mechanical properties of A356 alloys, specimens were taken from both within and away from the weld area. The locations of bend test specimens for the two configurations are shown in Figure 8.


The samples for the B-plate taken from locations along the length of the confluence weld were positioned such that the weld was located in the center region of the samples (Fig- ure 8(a). The dimensions for each of the bend samples from plates B and A1 can be found in Tables 1 and 2.


For the second series of bend tests, the sample geometry ref- erenced previously and shown in Figure 7(b) were used for each of the eight plates. These bend tests tested mechanical properties among the four configurations, whereas the first set focused more on the effect of confluence welds on such properties.


For the samples designated B-A1, B-B1, and B-C1, no stan- dardized testing configuration was used. The bottom and top force placements were altered for each of the tests to de- termine an appropriate geometry, as there is no four-point bend testing standard for metallic materials. However, after research of this testing method for various other materials, two ASTM Standards for testing of flexural properties of non-metallic materials were located.9-10 depict those force placement configurations.


Figures 9(a) and 9(b)


Tables 3 and 4 list the values for each of the samples from the B and A1 plates corresponding to the force placements as is shown in Figure 9. Note that specimens B-A1, B-B1, and B-C1 do not have force locations that adhere to the ASTM Standards9-10


, however, the bottom and top force placement values are still listed using the A-D designations in Table 3.


SET 2 After using both the test configurations in Figure 9, it was determined the standardized force placement for this re-


Table 4. Force Locations (mm) of A Plate Bend Test Samples Table 2. Dimensions (mm) of A1 Plate Bend Test Samples


search should conform to that of Figure 9(b) in which the top forces are a distance of L/3 apart. Thus, for the second set of tests, the force locations are the same for each of the 16 samples from each plate: A – 70 mm, B - 23.3 mm, C - 23.3 mm, and D – 10 mm.


Table 1. Dimensions (mm) of B Plate Bend Test Samples


Table 3. Force Locations (mm) of B Plate Bend Test Samples


(a)


Figure 9. Bend test configurations as described in the ASTM Standards:9-10 Central span length divided into sections of length L/3.


72


(b) (a) Top forces a distance of L/2 apart, (b) International Journal of Metalcasting/Spring 2012


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