is designed in a manner to be replicated on a regional, national or even international level, it is expected that KAPRIMO is a catalyst for basin-wide, or even country-wide river monitoring and planning. The different monitoring objectives in detail:
• Strengthening the existing monitoring system of DHM by municipality-led river segment teams, increased frequency of sampling & analysis
• River quality and hydrological data are more regular and more reliable, providing easy access to river quality information
• Networking among authorities - No boundaries between administrations
• Foundation for segment-wise development projects and basin-wide pollution control programmes
• Networking approach, create interest among people, transparency, motivate people
2.1 River segments and sampling spots
Kathmandu Valley is one of the largest drainage basins of Nepal. The valley includes three districts: Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. It elongates about 30 km east-west and about 25 km north-south. The total area is about 656 square km. The river system of Kathmandu Valley is named after the main river Bagmati. The origin of the river is located northeast of Kathmandu Valley in the midhills of Shivapuri (2731m asl).
It started with 10 physical- chemical parameters (Temperature, pH, DO,
Conductivity, BOD5, COD, Turbidity, NO3, NH4, PO4) plus heavy metals - displaying a broad picture
of the river quality condition. “Heavy” metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg) are measured at only 8 spots, as the analysis is very costly. The biological parameters of faecal coliform bacteria and macroinvertebrates have been integrated in the monitoring system as they have a direct link to human health. The seasonal analysis of macroinvertebrates (2 times per year) is undertaken at 9 sampling spots. Faecal coliforms analysis (MPN) is
Online monitoring results on www.kaprimo.org
done on a monthly basis at 15 sampling spots. Hydrological data (river discharge) are taken at 7 selected sampling spots, in order to provide a link between discharge, meteorological data and water quality.
The regular sampling of KAPRIMO is established monthly at all sampling spots within Bagmati and Bishnumati river segment (21). All sampling spots outside the defined river segments (19) are sampled at a reduced frequency of 3 times a year (pre- monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) as done by DHM already before.
3.2 Data Management and Interpretation
For the management of field and lab data, a MS Access database has been developed especially for KAPRIMO. Following the participatory approach of KAPRIMO, it is possible for everyone (using an internet connection) to view the monitoring results on the website www.kaprimo.org
. All field and lab data of 40 sampling sites are online and can be queried using different patterns. Being a pilot project, the database can be expanded with more sampling points and river basins, more parameters or according to other necessities which might occur after the project.
Sampling spots of KAPRIMO
3 Implementation of the Monitoring System
The KAPRIMO monitoring system has been realised through a wide range of activities. Initially a broad needs assessments survey and a comprehensive legal analysis have been conducted. Awareness raising activities among all stakeholder groups were followed by the constitution of the monitoring teams. Monitoring teams as well as relevant authorities were trained in sampling and analysis activities as well as in GIS data-management. The monitoring programme started officially in January 2007.
3.1 Data collection
As already laid down above, KAPRIMO not only focuses on reliable and easy accessible data, but on decentralisation and sustainability of the monitoring system. A special attention was given to the organisational set-up of the new monitoring system and the integration of the old DHM system. The river monitoring system of KAPRIMO was designed and adapted according to the local needs and the result of the comprehensive assessment conducted at the beginning of the project KAPRIMO is regularly monitoring physical-chemical, biological and hydrological parameters.
The physical-chemical parameters are summarised and weighted with the help of Bach Water Quality Index. The biological data obtained are evaluated using the Saprobic Water Quality Classes for four South-Asian countries (Ganga River System (GRS)/ Average Score per Taxon (ASPT)). For data interpretation and adequate display of results, relevant authorities have been trained and supplied with the GIS software ILWIS from the Dutch project partner ITC. For example both water quality indices mentioned above, are displayed with the help of GIS (ILWIS) maps. Moreover main pollutants, illegal drainage and waste dumping are recorded by GPS, digitised and analysed with the help of the GIS software. The first monitoring results of KAPRIMO as well as detailed data interpretation are covered by a separate paper.
4. Conclusions and Recommendations
Due to the intense planning and detailed description of roles and responsibilities of project partners and beneficiaries, there were only few complications while implementing the project. The project participatory approach helped to smoothly involve different stakeholders and governmental authorities. Difficulties mainly originated from political disturbances and regular substitution of decision makers. Financial commitments as well as general decisions have to go through a long row of responsibilities until an agreement is sealed and signed. As a consequence, for a long time the local partner ECCA took over responsibilities originally foreseen for local authorities. Through intense negotiations and never ending personal efforts, the monitoring system is fit for the future with clear responsibilities and a fair and transparent remuneration system for the various monitoring services.
Thus Kathmandu-Lalitpur benefits today from KAPRIMO by a functioning river monitoring system. More transparency concerning quality data, easy access to information led to an
increased awareness and consensus among stakeholders and local population. The future funding of the monitoring system has also been negotiated and is under the responsibility of local municipalities and project partner ECCA.
The project was designed to be a starting point for basin-wide or even country-wide river monitoring and planning. The detailed documentation of KAPRIMO will facilitate the integration of a river monitoring system in other parts of Nepal or South Asia. Training courses and the joint operation of the monitoring system by two different municipalities and several governmental institutions and other stakeholders will pave the way for trans-boundary administrational cooperation.
KAPRIMO linked key authorities and stakeholders and has identified the main problems in regard to the deteriorating water quality of rivers and streams. Capitalising on these valuableoutputs and the established network of governmental as well as non-governmental stakeholders, the situation in Kathmandu Valley must be improved. Governmental institutions, up to the ministerial level are earnestly willing to take up their responsibility for the first time and give the people something that is laid down even in the constitution: a basic human right - CLEAN WATER. The present political change will help to keep up this motivation.
This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the project partners and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
Government of Nepal 2002: Water Resource Strategy Nepal. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, GON Singha Darbar, Kathmandu.
Government of Nepal/ World Bank 1994: Bagmati Basin Water Management Strategy & Investment Programme. Ministry of Housing & Physical Planning, GON/World Bank, Kathmandu.
MOPE 1999: Environmental Planning and Management of the Kathmandu Valley. MOPE, Nepal.
Mutschler R., Shrestha P., Chitrakar Y. et al. 2007: Kathmandu Participatory River Monitoring (KAPRIMO) – A Model for South Asia; Concept of the River Monitoring System, First Edition January, 2007 (unpublished)
Paudel, Arjun: Environmental management of the Bagmati River Basin. Case Study 28. In: UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme): Studies of EIA Practice in Developing Countries.
Pradhan, Bandana 2005: Water Quality Classification Model in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region: The Bagmati River in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Sah, Ram Charitra 2006, Kathmandu Participatory River Monitoring: LEGAL ANALYSIS and RECOMMENDATIONS, ECCA-Nepal (unpublished)
AET October / November 2011 www.envirotech-online.com
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