16 Weather Monitoring First Results of CERN’s Cloud Experiment Now Published in Nature Journal
The CLOUD experiment has been designed to study the effect of cosmic rays on the formation of atmospheric aerosols - tiny liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere - under controlled laboratory conditions. Atmospheric aerosols are thought to be responsible for a large fraction of the seeds that form cloud droplets.
The CLOUD results show that trace vapors assumed until now to account for aerosol formation in the lower atmosphere can explain only a tiny fraction of the observed atmospheric aerosol production. The results also show that ionization from cosmic rays significantly enhances aerosol formation. Precise measurements such as these are important in achieving a quantitative understanding of cloud formation, an important contribution to climate models.
The prestigious NATURE journal has now published first results from the CLOUD experiment, where two PTR-MS instruments contributed to this cutting
edge project. A quadrupole based PTR-MS was used to monitor trace concentrations of Ammonia and a PTR-TOF-MS system (based on time of flight technology) continuously scanned organic vapor concentrations in the CLOUD chamber.
IONICON Analytik (Austria) is a manufacturer of PTR-MS instruments and has developed the high-resolution PTR-TOF-MS technology together with the Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics of the University of Innsbruck. IONICON commercialised the PTR-TOFMS series very successfully in 2007 for the ultra-sensitive and high-resolution quantification of VOCs in real-time.
IONICON is a proud partner of the CLOUD Initial Training Network (CLOUD-ITN) project, a multi-site network of 8 Ph.D. students and 2 post-docs at 9 partner institutions across Europe. Reader Reply Card No. 41
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Environmental Technology please tell them where you saw their product.
New Technology to Improve Early Detection of Explosive Volcanic Ash Cloud Eruptions
Vaisala’s (Finland) Global Lightning Dataset GLD360, now includes new technology that can provide early warnings of explosive ash clouds that cause disruptions to aviation routes and safety. The technology detects lightning produced by volcanic eruptions which is a key indicator of potential ash cloud bursts. During the first 30 hours of the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvotn, GLD 360 detected over 14,000 lightning events within a 30 kilometer radius surrounding the volcano.
Says Nikki Hembury, Vaisala’s Product Manager for Vaisala’s Thunderstorm Systems and Data: "Volcanic eruptions are a global phenomenon. However, not all volcanoes have the required instruments nearby to detect these eruptions. In addition, it is sometimes difficult to observe the eruptions using weather satellite imagery, since multiple layers of clouds can limit the view of the volcanic ash cloud itself."
"Detection of lightning in ash clouds can enable scientists and the aviation community to detect explosive volcanic eruptions as soon as they occur, improving the safety of travelers, and saving the millions lost due to unplanned flight delays and cancellations."
GLD360, which was launched in 2009, locates lightning using the VLF (very low frequency) radio frequency spectrum. The technology is capable of detecting VLF signals over thousands of kilometers across the globe.
With highly accurate timing and location methodologies using advanced patented algorithms, GLD360 detects more lightning on a global basis than any other technology. The service now includes a new patented algorithm which greatly improves the accuracy and amount of detected lightning for immediate detection of volcanic ash cloud electrification through detection of lightning globally.
Vaisala’s lightning data can be combined with visualisation packages to set up customised alerts based on user needs for safety and operational efficiency. Reader Reply Card No. 42
Unprecedented Demand for Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges
Specialists in hydrology and rainfall monitoring equipment, Casella Monitor (UK) is currently basking in a 30% increase in sales of its high performance Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge (TBRG) over the past 18 months.
The TBRG incorporates new calibration multi-point methodology, which Casella Monitor believes has resulted in one of the best, most cost-effective solutions on the market at present.
Gary Noakes, Casella Monitor Market Manager explains: “We had unprecedented demand from international government bodies and the product is popular with companies who integrate the buckets
into their own telemetry and hydrology systems. The increased need to monitor rainfall, especially for crop and flood protection, is driving demand across the globe.”
TBRGs are sensors for measuring rainfall level and events such as thunderstorms. The Casella Monitor TBRG model is a reliable and extremely robust transducer, designed as a stand-alone sensor for operation within an existing logging system, such as the Casella Automatic Weather Station.
Gary concludes: “We are currently drastically increasing stock levels to keep up with demand and ensure quality service to our customers.”
Comprising a divided bucket assembly which is pivoted at the centre, rain collects in one side of the bucket, which then tips when a predetermined volume of water has been collected. The tipping action discharges the collected water and repositions the opposite side of the bucket under the discharge nozzle ready for filling.
Reader Reply Card No. 45 Reader Reply Card No. 44
The Model 61302 Barometric Pressure Sensor from R. M. Young Company (USA) provides remarkable accuracy of ± 0.3 hPa over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 0-5 VDC and 4-20 mA current output versions are available. Serial output is standard with either option. High accuracy, wide range and low power make this sensor ideal for a broad range of applications.
Reader Reply Card No. 43
Barometric Pressure Sensor is Affordable and Accurate
AET October / November 2011 www.envirotech-online.com
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