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Fig. 4. Shown is proper, positive draft and incorrect, negative draft. Draft refers to the taper of the pattern, which allows it to be ex- tended from a compacted sand mold.


Fig. 3. Cores are placed into a mold.


Coldbox process A two-part organic resin binder system mixed in conventional mixers and blown into core shapes at room temperature. A vapor mixed with air sets the core. Compacted graphite iron (CGI) Cast iron treated in the liquid state to give it a graphite shape between the flake form of gray iron and the spherical form of ductile iron. Continuous casting A process in which molten metal is continuously solidified while being poured through a water- cooled mold; castings can be sawed off at any desired length.


Cope The top half of a horizontally-parted mold. Core A sand or metal insert in a mold to shape the interior of the casting or that part of the casting that cannot be shaped by the pattern (Figs. 2 and 3). Core assembly A substructure made from a number of cores. Corebox The wooden, metal or plastic tool used to produce cores. Coreprint A projection on a pattern that leaves an impression in the mold for supporting the core.


Core wash A liquid suspension of a refractory material applied to cores and dried (intended to improve surface of casting).


Coupon An extra piece of metal, either cast separately or at- tached to a casting, used to determine the mechanical or physi- cal properties of the alloy.


Crucible A receptacle made of refractory materials used for melting and holding molten metal.


Crush The displacement of sand at mold joints. Cupola A cylindrical, straight shaft furnace (usually lined with refractories) for melting metal in direct contact with coke by forcing air under pressure through openings near its base.


Cure To harden. Deburring The removal of fins or sharp edges from castings. Dendrite A treelike microstructure pattern formed during the cooling of metal. Dewaxing The process of melting the expendable pattern out of an investment mold by the application of temperatures less than 250F (121C).


Die A metal form used as a permanent mold for diecasting or for a wax pattern in investment casting.


Dowel A pin of various types used in the parting surface of parted patterns or dies to assure correct alignment.


Draft Tapering on the vertical sides of a pattern or corebox to permit the core or sand mold to be removed without distorting or tearing the sand (Fig. 4).


44 METAL CASTING DESIGN & PURCHASING


Drag The bottom half of a horizontally parted mold. Ductile iron Cast iron that has the major part of its graphite carbon in nodular form. Dye penetrant inspection An inspection method used to detect cracks or other surface defects in non-magnetic materials by injecting a colored liquid. Ejector pins Movable pins in pattern dies that help remove patterns or die castings from the die. Elasticity The property of recovering original shape and dimen- sions when a deforming force is removed. Elongation The amount of permanent extension near the fractures in a tensile test, expressed as a percentage of original gage length.


Eutectic temperature The lowest melting temperature in a series of mixtures of two or more components. Expendable pattern A pattern that is destroyed in the mak- ing of a casting, usually made of wax or foam. External chill A piece of heat-conducting material (usually metal) placed in the mold wall that induces rapid cooling of the molten metal in the mold. Facing sand The sand used to surround the pattern that pro- duces the surface in contact with the molten metal.


Fatigue The tendency of a material to break under conditions of repeated cyclic stress.


Feeder Part of the gating system that forms the reservoir of molten metal necessary to compensate for losses due to shrink- age as the metal solidifies; a riser.


Ferrite Carbon-free iron. Ferrostatic pressure A force induced by a head of liquid iron or steel.


Fettling Loose material, as sand, thrown on a hearth to protect from shock.


Fillet A concave piece of material used to replace sharp corners on patterns or coreboxes; may be part of the mold (struck) or made separately (planted).


Fin A thin projection of metal on a casting resulting from im- perfect mold or core joints.


Fines Sand grain sizes substantially smaller than the predomi- nant grain size. Finish allowance The amount of stock left on the surface of a casting for machining. Finish mark A symbol (f, fl,


drawing that represents the edge of the surface of the casting to be machined or otherwise finished.


f2 2011 CASTING SOURCE DIRECTORY , etc.) appearing on the line of a


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