This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
DISINFECTANT Any compound which will destroy micro-organisms. Carbolic acid (phenol) is one of the best known. Recent developments in this field have produced a large number of stronger disinfectants, which are both more effective and safer to handle.


DRY-BRIGHT Normally refers to water-based floor wax which, on application, will dry with a glossy appearance. Dry-bright floor waxes are also known as ‘self-gloss’ emulsion waxes.


DRIERS Used to accelerate the drying, or hardening process, particularly in air drying seals.


DRYING The process of hardening. Two stages are normally apparent in the drying process:


(A) TOUCH DRY The stage at which the film will not mark when pressed lightly with a finger. At this stage the surface has hardened to the extent that it will not retain dust and dirt settling upon it.


(B) HARD DRY The stage at which the seal or dressing is sufficiently hard to withstand traffic.


DUSTING This term is normally applied to concrete floors, and refers to the disintegration of the surface layer of concrete into very fine particles of ‘dust’. Almost all concrete floors dust to some extent, depending upon the concrete mix and type and volume of traffic.


EGGSHELL FINISH Subdued gloss of a surface coating material.


ELECTROSTATIC DUSTER A synthetic fibre duster which, because it generates static electricity when moved, retains dust.


EMULSIFYING AGENT A chemical used in the preparation of emulsions to prevent the components from separating. An emulsifying agent is normally only used in small quantities.


EMULSION A very fine suspension of one liquid in another liquid with which it is not miscible. Oil and water are not normally miscible and will separate if blended together. They can, however, be emulsified by the use of emulsifying agents which suspend one liquid in another. By common use the word has also come to mean the suspension of a wide range of solid materials in water. For example, although wax is a solid, a suspension of wax in water is called water/wax emulsion.


EMULSION WAXES (A) TWO COMPONENT SYSTEMS A blend of water/wax emulsion and an alkali-soluble resin or shellac. They may or may not dry with a glossy appearance. An increased gloss can be obtained by buffing.


(B) THREE COMPONENT SYSTEMS A blend of a water/wax emulsion and an alkali-soluble resin or shellac and a synthetic polymer resin emulsion. Examples of polymer resins commonly used in the polish industry are polystyrene and acrylates. The water/wax emulsion, alkali-soluble resin and synthetic polymer resin emulsion can be blended in almost any proportions to give emulsion waxes with a wide variety of properties.


ENZYME A catalyst produced by living cells, generally protein.


EPOXY RESIN A synthetic resin made essentially from petroleum derivatives. It is usually supplied in a two-pot form when used in a floor seal. The base component consists of the epoxy resin while the accelerator may be one of a variety of chemicals. In a solvent-free form it is used for floor laying.


ETCHING The process of forming small cavities in a surface by the use of a chemical reagent. For example, when sealing concrete floors it is often desirable to etch the surface with an acid. The cavities so formed, enable the seal to penetrate further thus ensuring a greater degree of adhesion.


FAHRENHEIT Temperature scale on which water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F.


FILM A very thin layer of a substance which, in the case of a floor seal, is usually between 0.13mm (5/1000in) and 0.25mm (10/1000in) thick.


FINISHING COAT This term is normally applied to a surface coating material used as the top coat of a painting or sealing system.


FLAMMABLE Capable of being easily ignited


FLASHING Associated with matt paints and seals. It describes the alternate matt and gloss striation effects sometimes left by brush marks, instead of the uniform matt finish which should be obtained.


FLASH POINT The temperature at which vapour from a liquid will ignite when exposed to a small flame or spark. The lower the temperature at which ignition takes place the more flammable is the liquid. For example, acetone, which has a flash point of -17.8°C (0°F) will ignite below ordinary room temperature 18.3°C (65°F) and is, therefore, very highly flammable; white spirit on the other hand, has a flash point of 41.1°C (106°F), and therefore requires the temperature to be raised before it will ignite.


FREEZE-THAW STABILITY This property is normally associated with water emulsion floor waxes and water paints and is the resistance of the material to repeated freezing and thawing. One complete freeze-thaw cycle consists of lowering the temperature of


the material until it freezes, holding it at that temperature for a specified period and then allowing it to warm to room temperature, when the material again becomes liquid. When a material fails a freeze-thaw stability test, solid ingredients in the emulsion separate from the liquid forming a hard mass. The material is then in an unusable condition. Depending upon the type of emulsion, a material may be completely freeze-thaw stable over repeated cycles, stable over a limited number of cycles or completely unstable when frozen and thawed once.


FRICTION The resistance to motion when it is attempted to slide one surface over another.


FUNGI Plants without chlorophyll, including moulds and mildews.


FUNGICIDE A substance which destroys fungi.


GERMICIDE See Disinfectant


GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA Bacteria which are not coloured by Gram’s stain.


GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA Bacteria which are coloured by Gram’s stain.


GLOSS A shiny surface given by surface coating materials.


HARDENER See Accelerator


HARDWOOD Hardwood is wood which belongs to the order Dicotyledoneae, or broad-leaf trees, which includes for example beech, teak and oak. Many hardwood floors will withstand heavy foot traffic successfully over a long period of time. Because of their resistance to abrasion and decorative appearance they are usually protected with a seal rather than with a floor covering.


HYGIENE Science concerned with the principles of health.


INDICATOR A chemical which changes colour when the pH of a solution changes.


INTERCOAT ADHESION The bonding together of two coats, one upon the other, of surface coating materials.


IODOPHORS Disinfectants containing iodine as the main ingredient.


LACQUER The correct definition of a lacquer is ‘a solution of film forming substances in volatile solvents’. Drying takes place by evaporation of solvent, leaving the original filmforming substances as a thin film on the surface.


LEVELLING Also known as ‘flow’. Levelling is the property of a surface coating material to flow out and spread itself evenly over the surface, so eliminating applicator or brush marks.


Technical Terms reproduced with kind permission of J.E. Edwards, FBICSc.


The future of our cleaning industry | TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK 2011/2012 | 9 TECHNICAL TERMS


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80