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with icy boulders the size of large houses and long, bluish cracks or faults (left).

Another Cassini instrument, the composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS), demonstrates that the southern pole is warmer than anticipated (below left). Temperatures near the equator were found to reach a frigid 80K. Scientists believe that the poles should be even colder because of the low level of energy received from the Sun. However,

south polar average

temperatures reached 85 K, much warmer than expected. Small areas of the pole, concentrated near the fractures, are even warmer: higher than 140K in some places.

Scientists find the temperatures difficult to explain if sunlight is the only heat source. More likely, a portion of the polar region, including observable fractures, is warmed by heat escaping from the interior. Evaporation of this “ warm” ice at several locations within the region could explain the density of the water-vapor cloud detected by Cassini’s instruments. How a 5 00-km

[ 310-mile] diameter moon can generate this much internal heat and why it is concentrated at the southern pole are still a mystery. Similar to multiple well-logging instruments

> Im aging Enceladus. This view ( top left) is a m osaic of four high-resolution im ages tak en b y the Cassini spacecraft narrow -angle cam era during its close  y b y of Saturn’ s m oon Enceladus. The view is ab out 3 00 k m [ 186 m iles] across and show s a m y riad of faults, fractures, folds, troughs and craters. The im ages w ere tak en in visib le light at distances ranging from of 26, 14 0 to 17 , 4 3 4 k m [ 16, 24 6 to 10, 83 3 m iles] . The southern polar terrain of Enceladus ( b ottom left) appears strew n w ith great

b oulders of ice in the w ide-angle cam era im age; m ore details are show n in the high-resolution, narrow -angle cam era im age ( inset) . The tw o im ages w ere acq uired at an altitude of approx im ately 208 k m [ 129 m iles] . The enhanced color view of Enceladus ( right) is principally of the southern hem isphere. The south polar terrain is m ark ed b y a strik ing set of ‘ b lue’ fractures and encircled b y a conspicuous and continuous chain of folds and ridges. This m osaic is a false-color view that includes im ages tak en at w avelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared portion of the light spectrum . ( Im ages courtesy of NASA/ J PL/ Space Science Institute. )

Enceladus Tem perature Map 85 80 7 5 7 0 65 Predicted tem peratures Ob served tem peratures

> A hot southern pole. This m ap represents the surface tem perature of Enceladus as seen b y the com posite infrared spectrom eter. The ob served tem peratures included an unex pected hot spot at the south pole. On average the region is 15 K w arm er than ex pected; in som e places hot spots greater than 14 0K w ere ob served. The hottest spots line up w ith the b lue fracture stripes visib le in the previous im age ( ab ove) . ( Im ages courtesy of NASA/ J PL/ Goddard Space Flight Center. )

4 5 . Sagan C: Cosm os. New Y ork City : Carl Sagan Productions and Random House ( 19 80) : 4 .

working together deep beneath the Earth’s surface, the discovery of an atmosphere on Enceladus resulted from an array of different sensors working in synergy to acquire data and maximize scientific value.

The Challenge of Space Advances in technology, particularly during the last 100 years, have helped change the way we view the Earth, our solar system and the universe beyond. From the E& P industry’s early begin- nings, engineers, geoscientists and many other dedicated men and women have led the way in exploration of our inner space environment. Today, this same innovative spirit, and in many cases, similar technologies, are taking us beyond the confines of Earth’s environment into the vast unknowns of outer space.

The examples presented in this article are just a few of the contributions made by the oilfield service industry to space exploration. In the future, we can expect to see more terrestrial technology applied in the quest for extrater- restrial understanding. The late astrophysicist Carl Sagan wrote, “ Imagination will often carry us to worlds that never were. But without it, we go nowhere.” 4 5

It is this imagination and

creativity that have driven the E& P industry to explore deep beneath the Earth’s surface and that will inevitably launch the first drilling expeditions to Mars and beyond.

— DW


Oilfield Review

Tem perature, k elvin

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