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2 5 0


O ffline E nergy


4


M aximum E nergy


4 0 0 1 0 0


M inimum E nergy


1 0 0 X ,1 0 0


∆T Stoneley µ s/ ft


B it Size in.


W ashout Caliper


in.


µ s/ ft S-Se


1 5 0 1 4 1 4 0 .1


M odeled Stoneley 2 5 0


1 5 0 0


F racture W idth in.


0 .5 Stoneley Aperture 1 0 1 0 0 ,0 0 0


F racture P ermeability mD


F racture P orosity ft3 / ft3


0


F racture Trace L ength µ s/ ft


0 Stoneley P ermeability 0


Stoneley V ariable Density L og


µ s 2 0 ,4 4 0 0 Tezuka M odel µ s 2 0 ,4 4 0 0


1 0 1 0 F M I I mage R esistive Conductive


O rientation N orth 1 2 0


2 4 0 3 6 0


X ,2 0 0


X ,3 0 0


X ,4 0 0


> Identify ing perm eab le fractures in Colorado using Stoneley w aves. The fracture aperture, or am ount of opening, com puted from Stoneley -w ave re ection and transm ission is display ed in Track 2. Track 3 show s fracture perm eab ility com puted from the Track 2 apertures. Z ones containing perm eab le fractures correlate w ith zones in w hich the FMI logs ( Track 6) show fractures. The sam e zones appear as anisotropic, w ith large of ine energy differences ( depth track ) , and also show large differences b etw een m easured Stoneley slow ness and slow ness m odeled for an elastic, im perm eab le form ation


( orange shading, Track 1) . Track 4 show s m easured Stoneley w aveform s, w ith am plitude reduction in the fractured zones. Track 5 show s w aveform s generated b y the Tezuk a m odel of reference 22. ( Modi ed from Donald and Bratton, reference 23 . )


FMI Fullbore Formation MicroImager images (above). With the broad range of Stoneley-mode frequencies acquired by the Sonic Scanner tool, these open natural fractures can be reliably characterized.


19 . Bivins CH, Boney C, Fredd C, Lassek J , Sullivan P, Engels J , Fielder EO, Gorham T, J udd T, SanchezMogollon AE, Tab or L, Valenzuela Muñ oz A and Willb erg D: “ New Fib ers for Hy draulic Fracturing, ” Oil eld Review 17 , no. 2 ( Sum m er 2005 ) : 3 4 – 4 3 .


Ab b as R, J aroug H, Dole S, Effendhy , J unaidi H, El-Hassan H, Francis L, Hornsb y L, McCraith S, Shuttlew orth N, van der Plas K , Messier E, Munk T, Nø dland N, Svendsen RK , Therond E and Taoutaou S:


“ A Safety Net for Controlling Lost Circulation, ” Oil eld Review 15 , no. 4 ( Winter 2003 / 2004 ) : 20– 27 .


Shear-Wave Directions in Mexico Small directional variations in formation properties can have a major impact on drilling and completion strategies, but these may be difficult to measure. For example, sonic velocities


20. Hornb y BE, J ohnson DL, Wink ler K H and Plum b RA:


“ Fracture Evaluation Using Re ected Stoneley Wave Arrivals, ” Geophy sics5 4 , no. 10 ( Octob er 19 89 ) : 127 4 – 1288.


Brie A, Hsu K and Eck ersley C: “ Using the Stoneley Norm alized Differential Energies for Fractured Reservoir Evaluation, ” Transactions of the SPWLA 29 th Annual Logging Sy m posium , San Antonio, Tex as, J une 5 – 8, 19 88, paper X X .


may be different in one horizontal direction compared with the orthogonal horizontal direction. This phenomenon, called elastic anisotropy, occurs in most sedimentary rocks and is caused by layering, aligned fractures or stress


21. Endo T, Tezuk a K , Fuk ushim a T, Brie A, Mik ada H and Miy airi M: “ Fracture Evaluation from Inversion of Stoneley Transm ission and Re ections, ” Proceedings of the 4 th SEGJ International Sy m posium , Tok y o ( Decem b er 10– 12, 19 9 8) : 3 89 – 3 9 4 .


22. Tezuk a K , Cheng CH and Tang X M: “ Modeling of Low - Freq uency Stoneley -Wave Propagation in an Irregular Borehole, ” Geophy sics62, no. 4 ( J uly -August 19 9 7 ) : 104 7 – 105 8.


23 . Donald A and Bratton T: “ Advancem ents in Acoustic Techniq ues for Evaluating Open Natural Fractures, ” prepared for presentation at the SPWLA 4 7 th Annual Logging Sy m posium , Veracruz, Mex ico, J une 4 – 7 , 2006.


Spring 2006


27


Depth, ft


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